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Extinct Javan elephants may have been rediscovered – in Borneo

18/04/2008 15:08:47 news/borneo-elephant
Extinct Javan elephants may have been rediscovered – in Borneo

April 2008: The Borneo pygmy elephant may not be native to Borneo after all. Instead, the population could be the last survivors of the Javan elephant race – accidentally saved from extinction by the Sultan of Sulu centuries ago, a new publication suggests.

The origins of the pygmy elephants, found in a range extending from the north-east of the island into the Heart of Borneo, have long been shrouded in mystery. Their looks and behaviour differ from other Asian elephants and scientists have questioned why they never dispersed to other parts of the island.

But a new paper published today supports a long-held local belief that the elephants were brought to Borneo centuries ago by the Sultan of Sulu, (part of the Philippines), and later abandoned in the jungle. The Sulu elephants, in turn, are thought to have originated in Java.

Javan Elephants
Javan elephants became extinct some time in the period after Europeans arrived in South-East Asia. Elephants on Sulu, never considered native to the island, were hunted out in the 1800s.

‘Elephants were shipped from place to place across Asia many hundreds of years ago, usually as gifts between rulers,’ said Mr Shim Phyau Soon, a retired Malaysian forester whose ideas on the origins of the elephants partly inspired the current research. ‘It’s exciting to consider that the forest-dwelling Borneo elephants may be the last vestiges of a subspecies that went extinct on its native Java Island, in Indonesia, centuries ago.’

Borneo Elephants

  • Borneo pygmy elephants are smaller than mainland Asian elephants. The males may only grow to less than 2.5 meters, while mainland Asian elephants grow up to 3 meters. They also have babyish faces, larger ears, longer tails that reach almost to the ground and are more rotund. These elephants are also less aggressive than other Asian elephants.The scientific name is Elephas maximus and they are sometimes refered to as Elephas maximus borneensis, although they have not been officially determined to be a separate subspecies from mainland Asian elephants.
  • The elephants are found primarily in the state of Sabah in Borneo Malaysia, with a few individuals having a part of their home range across the border in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  • Large areas of Borneo's forest are being rapidly cleared and replaced with tree plantations for rubber, palm oil and timber production and satellite tracking has found that the pygmy elephants prefer the same flat, lowland forest as commercial industries do, leading to competition for habitat.
First Known Elephant Translocation
If the Borneo pygmy elephants are in fact elephants from Java, an island more than 1,200 km (800 miles) south of their current range, it could be the first known elephant translocation in history that has survived to modern times, providing scientists with critical data from a centuries-long experiment.

Scientists solved part of the mystery in 2003, when DNA testing by Columbia University and WWF ruled out the possibility that the Borneo elephants were from Sumatra or mainland Asia, where the other Asian subspecies are found, leaving either Borneo or Java as the most probable source.

The new paper, ‘Origins of the Elephants Elephas Maximus L. of Borneo,’ published in this month’s Sarawak Museum Journal shows that there is no archaeological evidence of a long-term elephant presence on Borneo.

One Couple Could Produce 2000 Elephants in 300 Years
‘Just one fertile female and one fertile male elephant, if left undisturbed in enough good habitat, could in theory end up as a population of 2,000 elephants within less than 300 years,’ said Junaidi Payne of WWF, one of the paper’s co-authors. ‘And that may be what happened in practice here.’
Herd of Bornean Pygmy elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) crossing a road in the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, North Borneo, Malaysia. The Bornean pygmy elephant is found only in the northeast tip of Borneo, in the Malaysian state of Sabah. In June 2005 a team from the Sabah Wildlife Department in Malaysia and WWF’s Borneo office radio collared five Bornean Pygmy elephants. This was the first ever study of Borneo’s elephants and is the largest study ever undertaken to track Asian elephants using satellite technology. It was not until 2003 that the Bornean Pygmy elephant was scientifically recognised as a sub-species. © WWF / Cede PRUDENTE
100 Survive in the Wild
There are perhaps just 1,000 of the elephants in the wild, mostly in the Malaysian state of Sabah. WWF satellite tracking has shown they prefer the same lowland habitat that is being increasingly cleared for timber rubber and palm oil plantations. Their possible origins in Java make them even more a conservation priority.

‘If they came from Java, this fascinating story demonstrates the value of efforts to save even small populations of certain species, often thought to be doomed,’ said Dr Christy Williams, coordinator of WWF’s Asian elephant and rhino programme. ‘It gives us the courage to propose such undertakings with the small remaining populations of critically endangered Sumatran rhinos and Javan rhinos, by translocating a few to better habitats to increase their numbers. It has worked for Africa’s southern white rhinos and Indian rhinos, and now we have seen it may have worked for the Javan elephant, too.’


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